What is COVID-19?


corona virus

About COVID-19

A novel coronavirus is a new virus that has not been previously identified. The virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is not the same as the coronaviruses that commonly circulate among humans and cause mild illness, like the common cold and cough.

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A diagnosis with coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43, or HKU1 is not the same as a COVID-19 diagnosis. Patients with COVID-19 will be evaluated and cared for differently than patients with common coronavirus diagnosis.

The new name of this disease is coronavirus disease 2019, abbreviated as COVID-19. In COVID-19, ‘CO’ stands for ‘corona,’ ‘VI’ for ‘virus,’ and ‘D’ for the disease. Formerly, this disease was referred to as “2019 novel coronavirus” or “2019-nCoV”.

On February 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced an official name for the disease that is causing the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak, first identified in the city Wuhan of China.

There are many types of human coronaviruses including some that commonly cause mild upper-respiratory tract illnesses. COVID-19 is a new disease, caused by a novel (or new) coronavirus that has not previously been seen in humans. The name of this disease was selected following the World Health Organization (WHO) best externalization icon for the naming of new human infectious diseases.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans.

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans.

What are the Symptoms of COVID-19?

Signs and symptoms of COVID-19 may appear two to 14 days after exposure and can include:

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1. Fever

2. Cold

3. Cough

4. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

The severity of COVID-19 symptoms can range from very mild to severe. People who are child and older or have existing medical conditions, such as heart disease, may be at higher risk of serious illness. This is similar to what is seen with other respiratory illnesses, such as influenza.

How It Spread?

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Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses. Some cause illness in people, and others, such as canine and feline coronaviruses only infect animals. Rarely, animal coronaviruses that infect animals have emerged to infect people and can spread between people. This is suspected to have occurred for the virus that causes COVID-19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) are two other examples of coronaviruses that originated from animals and then spread to people. More information about the source and spread of COVID-19 is available on the Situation Summary: Source and Spread of the Virus.
What is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses?

The virus that causes is spreading from person-to-person. Someone who is actively sick with COVID-19 can spread the illness to other persons when someone came to in contact with a sick person. That is why the CDC recommends that these patients be isolated either in the hospital or at home (depending on how sick they are) until they are better and no longer pose a risk of infecting others.

How long it takes to recover the sick person.

How long someone is actively sick can vary so the decision on when to release someone from isolation is made on a case-by-case basis in consultation with doctors, infection prevention and control experts, and public health officials and involves considering specifics of each situation.

COVID-19 Now a Pandemic

A pandemic is a global outbreak of disease. Pandemics happen when a new virus emerges to infect people and can spread between people sustainably. Because there is little to no pre-existing immunity against the new virus, it spreads worldwide.

The virus that causes COVID-19 is infecting people and spreading easily from person-to-person. Cases have been detected in most countries worldwide and community spread is being detected in a growing number of countries. On March 11, the COVID-19 outbreak was characterized as a pandemic by the WHO external icon.

Risk Assessment COVID-19.

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The risk depends on the characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people; the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus and the relative success of these. The vaccines are not available so safety precaution need to take, avoid social gathering in public places.

Healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 are at elevated risk of exposure.
Close contacts of persons with COVID-19 also are at elevated risk of exposure.
The unknown infected family person at home also is an elevated risk of exposure.
Travelers returning from affected international locations where community spread is occurring also are at elevated risk of exposure, with the level of risk depends on where they traveled.

What is the CDC Response of COVID-19?

Global efforts at this time are focused regularly on lessening in the spread and impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat.

The environmental condition does help COVID-19?

It is not yet known whether weather and temperature impact the spread of COVID-19. Some other viruses, like the common cold and flu, spread more during cold weather months but that does not mean it is impossible to become sick with these viruses during other months. At this time, it is not known whether the spread of COVID-19 will decrease when the weather becomes warmer. There is much more to learn about the transmissibility, severity, and other features associated with COVID-19, and investigations are ongoing.

How to Protect Yourself?

This is a rapidly evolving situation and the risk assessment may change daily. The latest updates are available on the WHO Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) website.

1. Maintain social distance at least one meter from person to person in the social gathering, party, and public places because when someone coughs or sneezes, the virus spray in small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth, then you breathe droplets including virus.

2. Use mask always when in traveling other stations.

3. Keep your hand clean, wash your hands frequently with shop and running water.

4. Avoid had to shake with peoples, the habitual of peoples are keep on touching their face frequently, the can transmit via hand contacts.

5. Avoid international traveling this time of periods.

6. Practice respiratory hygiene, to avoid disposing of the tissue immediately.

7. If you have a fever, cold, cough, and breathing difficulty, seek medical care early.

8. Stay home if you begin feeling unwell.

9. Do not use public transports.

10. Use sanitizers for hands.

When should we do Testing?

If you develop symptoms such as fever, cough, and/or difficulty breathing, and have been in close contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or have recently traveled from an area with the ongoing spread of COVID-19, stay home and call your healthcare provider. Older patients and
individuals who have severe underlying medical conditions
or are immunocompromised should contact their healthcare
provider early, even if their illness is mild.

Current situation of COVID-19

Public health emergencies, such as the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are stressful times for people and communities. Fear and anxiety about a disease can lead to social stigma toward people, places, or things. For example, stigma and discrimination can occur when people associate a disease.

There is still a lot that is unknown about the newly emerged COVID-19 and how it spreads. Two other coronaviruses have emerged previously to cause severe illness in people (MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV). The virus that causes COVID-19 is more genetically related to SARS-CoV than MERS-CoV, but both are beta coronaviruses with their origins in bats. While we don’t know for sure that this virus will behave the same way as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, we can use the information gained from both of these earlier coronaviruses to guide us.


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